Philosophy is the study and discussion of metaphysics, the reasons of existence, reality and ethics. Philo-sophia means love for Sophia (Greek word for Wisdom, goddess in gnosticism). Scientific knowledge and teachings of spirituality about the human soul were inverted and distorted by elite families into worship of the God program with religions like Judaism, Christianity of the Catholic Church, Hinduism, magic and later subdivided into freemasonry, materialism (the Science Church), psychology and linguistics.  

Ancient tradition

Egypt: teachings about immortality of the soul.

Greece: Pythagorean mystery school (sacred symbol of tetractys), Thales of Miletes (teacher of Anaximander), Hermetic texts written in the form of dialogues attributed to Plato and Aristotle, Democritus, Epicurus, Diogenes the Cynic, Stoicism.

Roman Empire: Cicero and Seneca. tradition of Christian authors like Augustine of Hippo, Thomas Aquinas (Domenicans), alchemist Roger Bacon (Franciscans), Albertus Magnus (Dominicans), Dante Alighieri (Christian concept of Hell), Bernard of Clairvaux (founder of Knights Templar), Jakob Böhme, Erasmus, Baruch Spinoza. The alchemists experimented with chemical substance to find the philosopher's stone (squared circle).

The cult of Mercury (Hermeticism of the Medici's, Marsilio Ficino) invented authors like Plato (dialogues of Socrates, writings about Atlantis). Rafael painted the School of Athens with Plato (based on Leonardo Da Vinci) and Aristotle making the Hermetic sign As Above So Below.

The jesuits (Philip Couplet) invented author Confucius. HC Agrippa wrote 3 Books on Occult Philosophy (influence on Paracelsus).

Modern tradition:

jesuit René Descartes, jesuit Marin Mersenne, Thomas Hobbes, Blaise Pascal, Edmund Burke, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Thomas Carlyle, Houston Stewart Chamberlain, David Hume, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, John Locke, Michel de Montaigne, German idealism of Johann Gottlieb Fichte, Friedrich Schelling, Friedrich Jacobi, Arthur Schopenhauer, Soren Kierkegaard, Friedrich Hegel, Enlightenment trend with Immanuel Kant, Voltaire, American Philosophical Society and Denis Diderot, Heskalah (jewish Enlightenment) with Moses Mendelssohn, Robert Boyle (modern chemistry), Friedrich Nietzsche (death of God), Ernst Haeckel, Johann Herder, Johann Wolfgang Goethe, Hegelian Karl Marx, Henri Bergson, William James, jesuit Martin Heidegger, John Stuart Mill,..

20th century

Frankfurt School (Herbert Marcuse, doctrine of the Left Wing Church), Martin Buber, Emil Cioran, Mircea Eliade, Kurt Gödel, Edmund Husserl (University of Göttingen, influenced Hermann Weyl), Cambridge Apostles (Ludwig Wittgenstein, Bertrand Russell, Karl Popper, Norbert Wiener), John Dewey, existentialism of jesuit JP Sartre and Albert Camus, Noam Chomsky, postmodernism of jesuit Jacques Derrida, jesuit Michel Foucault, Roland Barthes, Gilles Deleuze, Jean Baudrillard.

In 1945 Bertrand Russell wrote A History of Western Philosophy, published by George Allen (helped by mason John Ruskin, also published Roald Dahl and JRR Tolkien).

British propaganda office BBC made tv programs about philosophy with Alain de  Botton.

René Descartes

Friedrich Nietzsche