Mathematics

Mathematics
is the study of the torus, the point of equilibrium (scales of Ma'at) in the circle, through a language of symbols and system of logic built on rational (Ra) reasoning. Numbers define, weigh, measure, express, shape and
form reality and correspond to geofractal shapes. It is a an explanation for and description of natural process (much more logical and correct than human language, designed as a spell). The science of mathematics was developed and kept secret by masonic elite families as part of the Scientific Revolution (the Science Church) to rebuild the technological civilization of Atlantis. |

In the modern era they invented new forms of illogical mathematics and spread the idea that mathematics is invention of humans without a complete set of axioms.

**Pure mathematics: **number theory (natural
numbers and arithmetic operations divide, multiply. integers -containing
negative numbers, rational, real and complex numbers, quaternions, octonion,
cardinal numbers, prime numbers, pi, exponentional), equation,..

- algebra (Al, the All, linear algebra, group theory, field theory).

- geometry (measuring of the earth), trigonometry, hyperbolic geometry, differential geometry (study of smooth surfaces, Riemann surfaces), fractal geometry (Mandelbrot).

- topology (fi Moebius strip).

- logic (set theory)

- analysis (real analysis with real numbers, complex analysis with complex numbers), vectors, matrices.

A
**matrix** is a rectangular array of numbers, symbols, or
expressions, arranged in rows and columns (the bar of Isis). The number of rows and columns form
the dimensions of that matrix. Matrices are used to study physical phenomena, such as
the motion of rigid bodies. In computer graphics, they are used to
manipulate 3D models and project them onto a 2-dimensional screen. In
probability theory and statistics, stochastic matrices are used to
describe sets of probabilities (for instance, they are used within the
PageRank algorithm that ranks the pages in a Google search, Google
creates a matrix with nodes, more links, more connections, higher on the
list).

A stochastic matrix is a square matrix of unknown (not deterministic) coincidences, used to describe the transitions of a Markov chain. Each of its entries is a nonnegative real number representing a probability.

A Markov chain is a stochastic model describing a sequence of possible events in which the probability of each event depends only on the state attained in the previous event. Stochastic processes can be divided into various categories, which include random walks, martingales, Markov processes, Levy processes, Gaussian processes, random fields, renewal processes, and branching processes.

- discrete mathematics, combinatorics, game theory (set of rules, John Nash). trees, partition theory.

- measure theory, group theory (fi rubics cube permutation group), order theory.

- calculus (integral and differential, vector calculus, dynamic systems like ecosystems and social networks), Chaos theory,..

**Applied: **mathematical theoretical physics,
economics, mathematical chemistry and biomathematics, engineering (control theory),
numerical analysis, game theory in psychology, research on probability, statistics, optimization, computer science, graph theory, machine
learning, cryptography, mathematical logic,.. The NSA is the largest employer of mathematicians, for creating and
breaking codes.

**History of mathematics**

**2500 bc** Egyptian engineering, worship of mother goddess Isis (Ma'at holding scales of Libra), sacred geometry (circle, Vesica Pisces, measuring of Gaia, the earth), golden ratio phi in Great pyramids.** **Thoth is the god of mathematics.

The Babylonians use algebra and arithmetics for taxation.

Mathematics is equated with astrology. Jewish Kabbalists develop gematria and numerology.

**500 bc** Greek schools of philosophy and mathematics like the** Pythagorean** mystery school, using the tetractys symbol, division of the one in 2,3,4,..). counting (ability of animals) in 10 digits like 10 fingers
(digitus: finger). Although 10 was considered a holy number (1 and O, male and female), a 12 digit system would be easier, dividable by more numbers. Pythagorean theorem about three sides of a right triangle. logic (cause and effect, if A than B, implies if not A than not B).

**300 bc** **Euclid** the Elements (describing the circle). Archimedes' On Spirals and On Floating Bodies.

**200 bc** use of negative numbers in China.

**820** algebra is developed in Persia. Islamic Golden Age with Ibn al-Haytham. The alchemists use the squared circle symbol.

**1202** **Leonardo of Pisa (Fibonacci) **Liber Abaci (dedicated to Michael Scot), describing the Fiobonacci sequence of the Golden Ratio. Fibonacci uses Arab knowledge of algebra in European accounting. Niccolo Tartaglia and Dominican Willem van Moerbeke translate Archimedes and Euclid. Building secrets are passed through freemasonry.

**1509** Luca Paciola Divina Proportione, illustrated by Leonardo da Vinci.

**1545** Geralamo Cardano (son of friend of da Vinci) Ars Magna use of negative numbers. Cardano introduces the binomial theorem.

**1591** François Viète New Algebra.

**1607 **the jesuits start teaching students like René Descartes and Marin Mersenne at Prytanée national militaire. Descartes studies Arabic mathematical texts in the Netherlands with Jacobius Golius.

**1611 **Johannes Kepler publishes on the Kepler conjecture.

**1637 **René Descartes publishes La Géométrie (rule of signs used as method to determine the positive and negative roots of polynomial), based on work of Pierre de Fermat and helps setting the stage for the Enlightenment trend.

**1671** Isaac Newton Method of Fluxions, start of infinitesimal calculus (the infinite 8 of the torus) with Newton, Leibniz and Johan Bernouilli.

Newton's view of nature as mechanical device (G as Gravitational constant) becomes dominant in the Science Church.

The jesuits let **Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz** study the I Ching. He introduces algebra of concepts and
early computation theory.

**1734** George II Hanover founds the** University of Göttngen**.

**1738** Daniel Bernouilli (Royal Society) Hydrodynamica (mathematics of water).

**1760** Joseph-Louis Lagrange introduces the concept of surface integrals and employs it in fluid dynamics.

**1772** Lagrange formulates mathematical equations for Newton's mechanical model in Mécanique Analytique, using the work of Euler and Pierre-Simon Laplace.

**1796 Carl Friedrich Gauss** (American Philosophical Society) works for the Brunswick-Lunenbergs and teaches Bernhard Riemann and Auguste Möbius at University of Göttingen. He explores hyperbolic geometry.

**1807** Jean-Baptiste Fourier (student of Lagrange) Treatise on the propagation of heat in solid bodies (Fourier series, function represented by trigonemetric series, presented to the French Academy)

**1822** Jean-Baptiste Fourier Analytical theory of heat.

**1829 **Peter Gustav Lejeune Dirichlet (student of Gauss, married to sister of Illuminati-agent Felix Mendelssohn) proves the convergence of Fourier series.

**1847** George Boole (Royal Society) introduces Boolean algebra.

**1858** Auguste Möbius (descendant of Martin Luther) discovers the Möbius strip.

**1859** Bernhard Riemann publishes Riemann's hypothesis (analytic number theory).

**1861** James Maxwell publishes his Maxwell
equations (based on Gauss' law, distortion of the Law of One), foundation of electromagnetism.

**1865** the London Mathematical Society with presidents Thomas Archer Hirst (Royal Society), Lord Rayleigh (Royal Society, Cambridge, Nobel Prize in Physics).

**1869** Norwegian mathematician Sophus Lie develops his theory of Lie groups.

Lewis Carroll writes Alice in Wonderland, based on 4D math (quaternions).

**1874** Georg Cantor On a Property of the Collection of All Real Algebraic Numbers (set theory).

**1889** Georg Cantor founds German Mathematical Society.

**1890** Gregorio Ricci-Carbustro introduces the concept of tensor calculus.

**1892** University of Chicago organizes the International Mathematical Congress at Chicago's World Fair.

**1897** Georg Cantor (set theory) and Felix Klein found the International Congress of Mathematicians.

**1900** David Hilbert presents Hilbert's problems at International Congress of Mathematicians (ICM), including Riemann's hypothesis.

**1903** Ludwig Boltzmann founds the Austrian Mathematical Society.

**1905** **Henri Pointcaré** (topology, chaos theory),
the brother of pm of France Raymond Pointcaré, invents 'non-Euclidean' geometry, influences Albert
Einstein to develop the
special theory of Relativity (also based on Riemann's differential geometry). rise of quantum mechanics.

**1912 **Edmund Landau's problems about prime numbers. Bertrand Russell and his teacher Alfred North Whitehead write Principia Mathematica, citing Cantor's work. ICM meeting at Cambridge with Marcel Grossmann.

**1913** Hermann Weyl The Concept of a Riemann Surface.

**1919** Emmy Noether proves Noether's theorem.

**1928** ICM congress with Hermann Weyl.

**1929** Paul Dirac (Cambridge) formulates the Dirac equation.

**1930** Kurt Gödel's incompleteness theorem (simultaneous with pragmatism and moral relativism).

**1933 **transfer of jewish mathematicians (Hermann Weyl, Emmy Noether, Edmund Landau, Paul Bernays) to the US to work on the atom bomb.

**1935** Richard Courant (University of Göttingen) establishes the Courant
Institute of Mathematical Institute of Mathematical Sciences at NYU.

**1936** Fields Medal is awarded to Lars Ahifors, Klaus Roth (Royal Society), John Milnor (K-theory), Michael Atiyah,.. Claude Shannon works with Vannevar Bush on differential analyzer, an early analog computer, based on Boolean algebra. Alan Turing On Computable Numbers.

**1939 **John von Neumann and Hermann Weyl work at IAS of Princeton with Albert Einstein.

**1940s** Norbert Wiener develops cybernetics. John von Neumann works for RAND Corporation. Alan Turing works on cryptography projects of MI6.

**1943** Macy conferences on cybernetics with Wiener, von Neumann, Leonard Savage, Walter Pitts.

**1951** founding of Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.

**1952** founding of the NSA. popular mathematics in Scientific American columns of Martin Gardner.

**1963 **Edward Norton Lorenz and Benoit Mandelbrot introduce the concepts of chaos theory. Jesuit trained Laurent Schwarz introduces theory of distributions.

**1972** soul theorem of Jeff Gieger. Edward Lorenz introduces the term 'butterfly effect' (Monarch butterfly) at meeting of AAAS. Ted Kaczynski thesis Boundary Functions.

**1974 **Michael Atiyah, president of Royal Society, as president of the London Mathematical Society.

**1987** Michael Arbib (cybernetics with Norbert Wiener and Warren McCulloch) Brains, Machines and Mathematics.

**1998 **formation of the Clay Mathematics Institute, who with help from Michael Atiyah, John Milnor present the Millennium Prize Problems: P versus NP, Hodge conjecture, the Pointcaré conjecture, Riemann hypothesis.

**2003** Grigori Perelman solves the Pointcaré
conjecture (Millennium Prizes). quantum computing.

**2005** Stephen Hawking God Created the Integers.