Lead is a chemical element with symbol Pb and atomic number 82 (between 81 thalium and 83 bismuth). It is a grey heavy metal and a toxic, associated with planet Saturn (melancholia, cynicism). It was used by the Saturn cult in alchemy, in cosmetics and the war industry. It is linked to silver, obtained through burning galena, a mineral form of lead sulfide.

Like antimony it often occurs as sulfide. It can react with fluorine to form lead fluoride. Cerussite is lead carbonite. It can cause brain damage and lead to death.

The Egyptians and Greeks used lead mineral in cosmetics. The alchemists tried to transmute lead into gold.

During the Roman Empire lead was used to make water pipes and added to wine. The Romans called lead plumbum and tin plumbum candidum (bright lead).

Lead was used in the first printing presses and organ pipes.

Isabelle d'Este (Italian Renaissance), Elizabeth I and the Japanese geisha's used lead in face whitening. The Venetians sold it as Spirits of Saturn.

The Lunar Society created the Industrial Revolution and increased the level of lead poisoning.

Lead is used in acid batteries and lipstick of the cosmetic and fashion industry. Graphite was used in pencils to imitate lead.

In Lord of the Rings (written by Cecil agent JRR Tolkien) Denether is driven to madness through lead poisoning.

It was used to toxify the population of the Soviet Union and later China. Robert Kehoe (GM, Dupont) introduced the use of tetraethyllead in gasoline.