Lycergic acid diethylamide (LSD) is a psychedelic drug synthesized in 1938 by Albert Hoffman, working for Sandoz (the Warburg family) in Basel Switzerland. It was used in research on mind control and in the CIA/MI6 controlled Beatnik culture, hippie counterculture of Laurel Canyon, Greenwich Village, Haight-Ashbury and Swinging London.

It binds to dopamine and serotonin receptors and causes hallucinations and sometimes ego death and religious experiences that can last 8 to 20 hours. It is usually sold on blotter paper.

Hoffman worked with Arthur Stoll (Royal Society). In 1947 Sandoz Laboratory introduced LSD as drug in psychiatry. It was tested at Edgewood Arsenal of Chemical Warfare Service in Maryland, which also tested nerve gases developed by the nazi's.

From the 50's Humpfrey Osmond pretended to use LSD to treat alcoholism, while performing LSD, mescaline and insuline shock therapy research. He worked with Gerald Heard (MI6).

Harold Abramson and Ewen Cameron used LSD in MK Ultra. Willis Harman conducted LSD research at Stanford Research Institute.

Oscar Janiger (University of California), cousin of Allen Ginsberg, gave LSD from Sandoz to Cary Grant, Aldous Huxley, Anais Nin, who had an affair with Freud's collegue Otto Rank and Henry Miller and played in Kenneth Anger's Inauguration of the Pleasure Dome with Marjorie Cameron and Curtis Harrington.

From 1964 Stanford University affiliates Ken Kesey and his Merry Pranksters (Stewart Brand, Wavy Gravy and Paul Krassner) created acid experiments.

Jesuit trained CIA agent Timothy Leary performed LSD research at Harvard University with Richard Alpert under supervision of Frank Barron. Leary worked with LSD dealers Brotherhood of Eternal Love (Tim Scully, Nicolas Sand) and founded the League for Spiritual Development in Greenwich Village. Scully also worked for Esalen.

Roger Corman directed The Trip in Laurel Canyon with Peter Fonda, Dennis Hopper, Jack Nicholson and Bruce Dern. Owsley Stanley provided LSD to the Grateful Dead. Alfred Hubbard and Aldous Huxley promoted it as a wonder drug.

James Ketchum did LSD research at chemical warfare facility Edgewood Arsenal.

Michael Hollingshead provided LSD to William Burroughs, Roman Polanski, Alan Watts (Esalen), Keith Richards, Jimi Hendrix, Eric Clapton, John Lennon,  George Harrison, William Burroughs, Allen Ginsberg, Joseph Berke (worked with RD Laing of Tavistock).

The Beatles promoted LSD with song Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds on Sgt Pepper's. Jim Morrison was used as an icon of the hippie generation. Robert Crumb, Wes Wilson, Gilbert Shelton and Robert Williams experimented with LSD in the Haight Ashbury comic scene.

Columbia Pictures released Easy Rider with Karen Black based on a screenplay of Terry Southern.

Orange Sunshine LSD was used in the mind control of Charles Manson and the Manson Family.

The death of Frank Olson at Fort Detrick was blamed on LSD.

 Apocalypse Now contained a scene with a character hallucinating on LSD.

Humpfrey Osmond appeared in LSD documentary 'Hofmann's Potion: the Early Years of LSD' with Albert Hofmann, the wife of Aldous Huxley, Richard Alpert and Stanislav Grof (CIA Esalen Institute). HR Giger and Alex Grey also experimented with LSD.

In 2003 David Black published Acid A New Secret History of LSD about the Weather Underground and Ronald Stark with an introduction of Kenn Thomas.

Timothy Leary

MK Ultra