Cardinal Richelieu

Armand Jean du Plessis Duke of Richelieu (Cardinal Richelieu), nicknamed the Red Eminence, was a French cardinal of the Catholic Church and dictator, who was First Minister of State of Louis XIII Bourbon (mainly controlled by his mother Marie de Medici) from 1624 to 1642.  He played a role in the Thirty Years' War against the Habsburgs by forging alliances with protestant countries UK and Netherlands. He was made bishop by pope Paul V (Borghese). He helped establishing the Académie Française.

He worked with freemason Robert Moray (Lodge of Edinburgh, later Invisible College) as spy and with jesuit Nicholas Caussin. His niece married Louis Grand Condé (Bourbon).

In 1635 France attacked Spain. Cardinal Mazarin succeeded him in 1942.

In 1648, after the Battle of Lens (French Bourbons defeat Spain), the treaty of Westphalia was signed. Spain was forced to sign a peace treaty with Holland, ending the 80 Years' War. Louis XIV continued centralizing power in France as the Sun King in Versailles.

The end of the Thirty Years' War is often seen as the start of the modern era. The House of Hanover became the patrons of the scientific revolution (Royal Society).

Alexandre Dumas used Richelieu in The Three Musketeers (tarot card 3 of swords) in 1844. In 1839 rosicrucian Edward Bulwer-Lytton wrote the play Richelieu (with famous line 'the pen is mightier than the sword').

George Arliss played Richelieu in Cardinal Richelieu (1935) of United Artists with Maureen O'Sullivan (mother of Mia Farrow), Cesar Romero and John Carradine (OTO). Edgar Barrier played Richelieu in Cyrano de Bergerac (1950) also of UA. Christopher Logue played Richelieu in The Devils of Ken Russell with Vanessa Redgrave. Tim Curry played Richelieu in the Three Musketeers (1993) of Disney with Charlie Sheen, jesuit Chris O'Donnell and Kiefer Sutherland.

Christoph Waltz played Richelieu in The Three Musketeers (2011) with Orlando Bloom, Logan Lerman and Milla Jovovich.

born 9/9/1585.

died 12/4/1642.


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